Ohm's Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.
A voltage divider is a passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin). Voltage division is the result of distributing the input voltage among the components of the divider. A simple example of a voltage divider is two resistors connected in series, with the input voltage applied across the resister pair and the output voltage emerging from the connection between them.
Kirchoff's Voltage Law simply states that the directed sum of the electrical potential differences (voltage) around any closed network equals zero.
The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear system the response (voltage or current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, where all the other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances.
In the schematic below you see a capacitor with a sine wave generator. When an AC signal comes through a capacitor, a phase difference between the voltage and current appears
In the image below you see a DC voltage source connected with a resistor and a capacitor. There are two switches as well. One is always open, and the other is always closed. Therefore we only have two cases: the capacitor can either be charged or discharged.
A resistor-capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an lectric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source. A first-order RC circuit is composed of one resistor and one capacitor and is the simplest type of RC circuits. RC circuits can be used to filter a signal by blocking certain frequencies and passing others. The two most common RC filters are the high-pass filters and low-pass filters.
A RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), and inductor (L) and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. The name of the circuit is derived from the letters used to denote the constituent components of the circuit, where the sequence of the components may vary from RLC. A RLC circiut can be used as a band-pass filter, band-stop filter, low-pass filter or a high-pass filter. The RLC filter is described as a second-order circuit, meaning that any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a second-order differential equation in circuit analysis.
An operational amplifier (often called op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, and op-amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals.